Chronology[ edit ] The study on Indonesian etymology and loan words reflected its historical and social context. Examples are the early Sanskrit borrowings probably in the Srivijaya period, the borrowings from Arabic and Persian during the time of the establishment of Islam in particular, and the ones from Dutch during the colonial period. Linguistic history and cultural history are clearly linked. Indian traders may have contributed words as well, in Tamil and Sanskrit-related languages.
Fujiwara Sanekata wrote in Shikashu This is also why people are forbidden to eat this fish. Station 5 Notes Thirtieth Since there were only 29 days in this month we know that this episode was either made up or misplaced.
Donald Keene suggests that Basho chose to rearrange the sequence of events and add an extra day to the calendar because he wanted to create some space between his visits to two holy sites, Muro no Yashima and Nikko.
Name Most editions of the text put this passage in quotations, Gozaemon is saying this about himself. He refers to himself as Hotoke Gozaemon, that is, Gozaemon the Buddha. April 13 This corresponds to May 19 in the Western calendar. Nikko The original name Niko means "twice turbulent" mountain.
There was an opening in the rocks on the northeast side of this mountain which erupted twice a year. When the venerable priest Kukai climbed the mountain, he changed the name to Nikko in order to pacify the eruptions.
Another legend says that Katsudo Shonin asked Kukai to give this name to this sacred site in honor of the Kannon. This mountain was actually made a sacred site by Katsudo Shonin in the Engaku era in the late 8th century. Black hair All Basho says here is: Mount Kurokami was shrouded in mist and still white with snow.
He works a contrast and a comparison. He cut his own hair, but the mountain has black hair.
He has changed his robes for those of a priest and the mountain has changed to its spring colors as of the 15th of the Fourth Month. He was a native of Kami Suwa in Shinshu.
He died in at the age of During his lifetime he edited several volumes of poetry. See-from-behind Basho calls the waterfall "Urami no taki," the waterfall of resentment or the waterfall seen from behind.
Observances Summer traditionally began on the 16th day of the Fourth Month and lasted for 90 days. It was customary for priests to go into seclusion in a room and dedicate themselves to reading and copying the sutras. These were the summer observances. Secluding himself in the cavern behind the waterfall reminds Basho of this practice.
Another aspect of this is that seeing the falls from behind represents a new perspective on the world rather than the conventional one. Sora says the accomodations were poor. Beautiful The name Kasane calls to mind the double petalled primrose.
Basho refers to her as a little princess.
Station 7 Notes Ground In the middle ages dog shooting took place in the horse riding grounds as a form of martial competition. It is said that the custom began here as a way of driving off the spirit of lady Tamamo.
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