Types of research[ edit ] Descriptive or documentary research[ edit ] Many customer satisfaction studies are intentionally or unintentionally only descriptive in nature because they give a snapshot in time of customer attitudes. If the study instrument is administered to groups of customers periodically, then a descriptive picture of customer satisfaction through time can be developed "tracking" or cohort study. While models-based studies also provide snapshots of customer attitudes, the results of these studies are more powerful because they present the firm with recommendations on how to improve customer satisfaction.
Purpose[ edit ] A business ideally is continually seeking feedback to improve customer satisfaction.
Their principal use is twofold: Much research has focused on the relationship between customer satisfaction and retention. Studies indicate that the ramifications of satisfaction are most strongly realized at the extremes.
A second important metric related to satisfaction is willingness to recommend. This metric is defined as "The percentage of surveyed customers who indicate that they would recommend a brand to friends.
This can be a powerful marketing advantage. Further, they can hurt the firm by making negative comments about it to prospective customers. Willingness to recommend is a key metric relating to customer satisfaction.
The considerations extend from psychological to physical and from normative to positive aspects. A study on customer satisfaction on, in most of the cases the consideration is focused on two basic constructs as customers expectations prior to purchase or use of a product and his relative perception of the performance of that product after using it.
Expectations of a customer on a product tell us his anticipated performance for that product. As it is suggested in the literature, consumers may have various "types" of expectations when forming opinions about a product's anticipated performance.
For example, four types of expectations are identified by Miller While, Day indicated among expectations, the ones that are about the costs, the product nature, the efforts in obtaining benefits and lastly expectations of social values. Perceived product performance is considered as an important construct due to its ability to allow making comparisons with the expectations.
It is considered that customers judge products on a limited set of norms and attributes. Olshavsky and Miller and Olson and Dover designed their researches as to manipulate actual product performance, and their aim was to find out how perceived performance ratings were influenced by expectations.
These studies took out the discussions about explaining the differences between expectations and perceived performance. Within a dynamic perspective, customer satisfaction can evolve over time as customers repeatedly use a product or interact with a service.
The satisfaction experienced with each interaction transactional satisfaction can influence the overall, cumulative satisfaction.
Scholars showed that it is not just overall customer satisfaction, but also customer loyalty that evolves over time. It is negatively confirmed when a product performs more poorly than expected.
There are four constructs to describe the traditional disconfirmation paradigm mentioned as expectations, performance, disconfirmation and satisfaction. In operation, satisfaction is somehow similar to attitude as it can be evaluated as the sum of satisfactions with some features of a product.
Churchill and Suprenant inevaluated various studies in the literature and formed an overview of Disconfirmation process in the following figure: It can be, and often is, measured along various dimensions.
A hotel, for example, might ask customers to rate their experience with its front desk and check-in service, with the room, with the amenities in the room, with the restaurants, and so on. Additionally, in a holistic sense, the hotel might ask about overall satisfaction 'with your stay.
Hedonic benefits are associated with the sensory and experiential attributes of the product. Utilitarian benefits of a product are associated with the more instrumental and functional attributes of the product Batra and Athola The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate.
The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization's products.
Work done by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry Leonard L  between and provides the basis for the measurement of customer satisfaction with a service by using the gap between the customer's expectation of performance and their perceived experience of performance.
This provides the measurer with a satisfaction "gap" which is objective and quantitative in nature. The usual measures of customer satisfaction involve a survey  using a Likert scale. The customer is asked to evaluate each statement in terms of their perceptions and expectations of performance of the organization being measured.
In an empirical study comparing commonly used satisfaction measures it was found that two multi-item semantic differential scales performed best across both hedonic and utilitarian service consumption contexts.
It loaded most highly on satisfaction, had the highest item reliability, and had by far the lowest error variance across both studies.
A semantic differential 4 items scale e. In the study, respondents were asked to evaluate their experience with both products, along seven points within these four items: Recent research shows that in most commercial applications, such as firms conducting customer surveys, a single-item overall satisfaction scale performs just as well as a multi-item scale.WHITE PAPER – FEBRUARY Employee Satisfaction & Customer Satisfaction: Is There a Relationship?
By Caterina C. Bulgarella, Ph.D, GuideStar Research Analyst. Customer satisfaction (often abbreviated as CSAT, more correctly CSat) is a term frequently used in ph-vs.com is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation.
Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences January , Vol.
4, No. 1 ISSN: Intuitively, most people recognize the value of a great customer experience.
Brands that deliver them are ones that we want to interact with as customers — that we become loyal to, and that we. The study measures customer satisfaction with banks in 11 regions of the United States. The scores reflect satisfaction of the entire retail banking customer bases of these banks, representing a broader group of customers than just the branch-dependent and digital-centric segments.
Customer satisfaction research is that area of marketing research which focuses on customers' perceptions with their shopping or purchase experience..
Companies are interested in understanding what their customers think about their shopping or purchase experience, because finding new customers is generally more costly and difficult than servicing existing or repeat customers.