The Philosophical Importance of Moral Reasoning 1. Of course, we also reason theoretically about what morality requires of us; but the nature of purely theoretical reasoning about ethics is adequately addressed in the various articles on ethics.
Performance-based learning and assessment represent a set of strategies for the acquisition and application of knowledge, skills, and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to students. Balance in Literacy Performance-based learning and assessment achieve a balanced approach by extending traditional fact-and-skill instruction Figure 1.
Performance-based learning and assessment are not a curriculum design. Whereas you decide what to teach, performance-based learning and assessment constitute a better way to deliver your curriculum. Because authentic tasks are rooted in curriculum, teachers can develop tasks based on what already works for them.
Through this process, assignments become more authentic and more meaningful to students. What Is the Balance? Content Knowledge The subject area content can come from already defined curriculums or can be enhanced by the adoption of a set of themes or topics by the department, grade-level team, school, or school system.
Process Skills Higher-order thinking or process skills can come from the various disciplines, such as writing or proofreading from language arts or math computation and problem-solving skills. Other process skills cut across subject area lines or may be identified as areas of need based on standardized testing e.
Work Habits Time management, individual responsibility, honesty, persistence, and intrapersonal skills, such as appreciation of diversity and working cooperatively with others, are examples of work habits necessary for an individual to be successful in life.
They are both an integral part of the learning and an opportunity to assess the quality of student performance. When the goal of teaching and learning is knowing and using, the performance-based classroom emerges.
Performance tasks range from short activities taking only a few minutes to projects culminating in polished products for audiences in and outside of the classroom. In the beginning, most performance tasks should fall on the short end of the continuum.
Teachers find that many activities they are already doing can be shaped into performance-learning tasks. The development of performance-assessment tasks is no exception.
With a little practice, however, teachers find that they can easily and quickly develop performance tasks and assessment lists. This process is further simplified as teachers and schools begin to collect and maintain lists of generic tasks and assessments that teachers can adapt for individual lessons.
Teachers find assessment lists a more efficient way of providing feedback to students than traditional methods, thus saving time in the long run. Finally, as students work with performance assessment, the quality of their work improves, reducing the time teachers must spend assessing and grading student work.
Examples of Performance Tasks Performance tasks should be interesting to the student and well connected to the important content, process skills, and work habits of the curriculum.
Sometimes students can help in constructing these tasks and assessment lists. The following are three performance tasks that call for graphs: Upper Level Middle or High School Provide the students with a copy of a speeding ticket that shows how the fine is determined.
Make a graph that shows teenagers in our town how much it will cost them if they are caught speeding. Excellent graphs will be displayed in the Driver's Education classroom.
Your help is needed to make graphs that show how many vehicles go through that intersection at certain times of the day. Excellent graphs will be sent to the Chief of Police.
Place a flashlight at one end, while darkening the other by folding over the box top. Make a graph that shows how many caterpillars move to the light and how many move to the dark part of the box.
Your graphs will be displayed at Open House.Students explore world geography by reading a children's book in class. In this Spanish culture instructional activity, students read the book Esperanza Rising and reflect upon each chapter by discussing it with their classmates.
inferences about the characters in the image based on the evidence they see. They might infer that the man in the background is the girl’s father or grandfather, that they are.
The system of "tracking" students in schools may be controversial, but this article looks at a new study showing that sorting by ability raises achievement in reading and math for .
This paper is a mixture of facts, inferences and extrapolations, based on my personal experience as an admissions committee member at Stanford.
All views expressed here are solely mine and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of Stanford University. Making Inferences & Drawing Conclusions Chapter Exam Instructions Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions.
You can skip questions if you would like and come back to them later with the yellow "Go To First Skipped Question" button. Educational Leadership November November I Volume 62 I Number 3 students when she had an easy question that "anyone could answer." When confronted with Entrance into many top-track programs in schools is subtly based on acquaintance with certain authors, certain ways of reasoning, and certain ways of behaving.