An introduction to the analysis of a human body

Nature versus nurture Certain characteristics may be innate in humans; these characteristics may be modified by the physical and social environment in which people interact. The sexual drive affects the development of personal identity and social activities. Freud believed sexual drives are instinctive. He was a firm supporter of the nature argument; he said there are a large number of instincts but they are reduced into two broad groups:

An introduction to the analysis of a human body

While basically accurate, this explanation involves liberal use of illustration and, in some cases, over-simplification.

Although intended to be informative, this is brief and incomplete explanation of a complex subject. The author suggests consulting the scientific literature for more rigorous details and alternative views.

DNA is a long, but narrow string-like object. This is possible only because DNA is a very thin string. Our body's cells each contain a complete sample of our DNA. One cell is roughly equal in size to the cube described in the previous paragraph. There are muscle cells, brain cells, liver cells, blood cells, sperm cells and others.

Basically, every part of the body is made up of these tiny cells and each contains a sample or complement of DNA identical to that of every other cell within a given person.

There are a few exceptions. For example, our red blood cells lack DNA. Blood itself can be typed because of the DNA contained in our white blood cells. Not only does the human body rely on DNA but so do most living things including plants, animals and bacteria.

A strand of DNA is made up of tiny building-blocks. There are only four, different basic building-blocks. These four letters are short nicknames for more complicated building-block chemical names, but actually the letters A,T, G and C are used much more commonly than the chemical names so the latter will not be mentioned here.

Another term for DNA's building blocks is the term, "bases. For example, to refer to a particular piece of DNA, we might write: This is a perfectly acceptable way of describing a piece of DNA.

The sequence of bases letters can code for many properties of the body's cells. The cells can read this code.

Introduction to the Human Body - Fundamentals - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

Some DNA sequences encode important information for the cell. A single sperm cell contains about three billion bases consisting of A, T, G and C that follow each other in a well defined sequence along the strand of DNA.

Each egg cell also contains three billion bases arranged in a well-defined sequence very similar, but not identical to the sperm. Both coding and non-coding DNAs may vary from one individual to another.

These DNA variations can be used to identify people or at least distinguish one person from another.

What is a Locus? Again, the DNA is a long string like object as illustrated below. A locus is simply a location in the DNA. Such locations, or loci, reside at specific places on chromosomes.

What is a Chromosome? When a cell is getting ready to divide creating two daughter cells, it packs its DNA into bundles called chromosomes.

Introduction to Human Evolution | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

Chromosomes are just bundles of DNA. For humans, there are consistently 23 pairs of chromosomes, each with a consistent size and shape. Chromosome number 1 is the largest chromosome; chromosome number 2 a little smaller and so on.

Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there is a pair called the sex chromosomes. This is something of a misnomer, since there are many functions on the "sex" chromosomes that have nothing to do with sex. In females, the sex-chromosome pair consists of two similar size chromosomes called X chromosomes.

Males have one X and one small Y chromosome.

An introduction to the analysis of a human body

Unless it has been purified, our DNA is actually not a loosely tangled string as illustrated but rather is well organized and packaged into what are called chromosomes.

A chromosome is a tightly folded bundle of DNA. Chromosomes are most visible when cells divide. In a microscope, chromosomes look something like this without the numbers and letters: The illustration shows a pair of chromosomes named chromosome number 4, one pair among 23 pairs of chromosomes.Human eye: Human eye, specialized sense organ in humans that is capable of receiving visual images, which are relayed to the brain.

The anatomy of the eye includes auxillary structures, such as the bony eye socket and extraocular muscles, as well as the structures of the eye itself, such as the lens and the retina. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah This exercise is a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies.

You will be arranging chromosomes into a completed karyotype, and interpreting your findings just as if you were working in a genetic analysis program at a hospital or clinic.

The Human Body - The human body is an incredible system that is capable of working a multitude of diverse thought functions as well as muscle actions.

An Introduction to the Human Body Introduction Though you may approach a course in biology of aging strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. Health Promotion Courses at Ashford University. An exploration of the human body as well as a deep dive into the purpose, goals, and benefits of health research, these Health Promotion courses are central to Ashford University’s Bachelor of Arts in Health Education program.

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