Ontology means the study of being; phenomenological means of or relating to perceptual consciousness.
You Essay about nothingness read four articles free per month. The Bible of Existentialism? Juneoccupied France. The presentation wrapper on the early reprint of Being and Nothingness hits the shelves with a loud thud rumour has it that it weighs exactly a kilo and can be used on the market place to measure quantities of food!
The historical context, combined with the density and opaqueness of some passages, has it that the impact of the work is not immediately felt.
However, as more and more readers delve into the complexities of the treatise, it becomes impossible to ignore its importance. As Michel Tournier later recalled of his, and others, encounter with the work, the book was certainly unusual, due to both its style and its content, but there was no doubt about its significance and about the fact that a system was born.
How does Being and Nothingness stand out in terms of style?
Sartre mixes theoretical reflections with examples that explore trivial daily situations. Many a reader of Sartre will be drawn by the power of the examples he gives.
His prose is at its best when he describes a situation. What about this system, then? Setting his feet in the phenomenological tradition, presenting himself as an heir of Heidegger and as critical of the master phenomenologist Husserl and of the whole idealistic and rationalistic tradition, Sartre investigates the lived experience of the individual.
The introduction of Being and Nothingness takes care of it rather quickly and concludes: Being is what it is. Let us get down to serious business and talk about what really matters: Thus, what follows will focus on freedom, responsibility, bad faith, and relationships with others.
But first, a word on Being. It is not to be equated with the world. The world is a later product of the encounter between the for-itself consciousness, human reality and the in-itself.
What comes out of this encounter is the world which is truly a human creation. Sartre has adopted the phenomenological concept of intentionality whereby consciousness is always conscious of something. If there is nothing besides consciousness, nothing of which it can be conscious, it ceases to exist.
Thus, the in-itself is needed as the basis upon which a consciousness and a world will emerge. What is unveiled through our conscious grasp of being is a world supported by being of which we can say nothing but that it is. Hence the remainder of the treatise is devoted to explain the for-itself and its various modes of existence as a for-itself, i.
We thus learn that the for-itself is none other than the nothingness that encounters Being. The for-itself, consciousness, is conceived of as a nothingness of Being, as a lack of Being. Indeed, intentional consciousness is initially empty, a void that is filled through its being conscious of the world.
Only following this initial encounter can consciousness move on to self-consciousness and, eventually, ego formation. The for-itself is a being in situation that has a certain grasp on the world and shapes itself through it.
It is constantly making itself. Since the for-itself is a nothingness, i. This entails, for Sartre, that the for-itself is entirely free to become through its actions.
It can freely break from its past or even from social or historical conditioning and affirm itself through its actions. Freedom and Responsibility Although this freedom could be seen as a great gift, Sartre tones this down quite a bit by insisting on the responsibility that it entails.
In fact, the for-itself will discover its own freedom in anguish. If freedom is absolute, responsibility is also absolute and hence I am really what I have made myself. If I collaborate with the Nazi occupiers my collaboration is all my doing.
I may want to blame my actions or attitudes on my upbringing, my social or economic situation, my past history and behavior patterns but, the fact is, I made that choice and even if everything points me towards being a passive citizen, I may freely break with this and decide to be involved politically.
Because I can break with my past, I am entirely responsible for it.By JAMES GLANZ Nothingness is fashionable again. When we last heard from the notion, Jean-Paul Sartre, the French existentialist philosopher, was writing that "nothingness lies coiled in the heart of being" in his decidedly something-sized tome "Being and Nothingness" (first published in ).
Essay on Nothing: By Henry Fielding (–) THE GREAT antiquity of Nothing is apparent from its being so visible in the accounts we have of the beginning of every nation. This is very plainly to be discovered in the first pages, and sometimes books, of all general historians; and, indeed, the study of this important subject fills up the.
The theme of nothingness in King Lear. The theme of nothingness in King Lear Among many works that Shakespeare has done, the play King Lear is considered as one of his greatest works by many. By JAMES GLANZ Nothingness is fashionable again.
When we last heard from the notion, Jean-Paul Sartre, the French existentialist philosopher, was writing that "nothingness lies coiled in the heart of being" in his decidedly something-sized tome "Being and Nothingness" (first published in ).
Download file to see previous pages Sartre’s anguish is a sub-chapter of ‘being’, which was written explicitly to represent the aspect of existential anguish.
Since Sartre’s was significantly existentialist, therefore; he elaborates extensively on human nature and its personality traits (Sartre, ). Being and Nothingness is without doubt one of the most significant books of the twentieth century. The central work by one of the world's most influential thinkers, it altered the course of western philosophy.
Its revolutionary approach challenged all previous assumptions about the individual's relationship with the world/5().