At first I felt bad for not understanding this. From the journal Neuropsychoanalysis which based on its name I predict is a center of expertise in not understanding things: There was a lot of mathematical knowledge in the room: I met with a Princeton physicist, a Stanford neurophysiologist, a Cold Springs Harbor neurobiologist to discuss the paper.
In casual encounters with the material universe, we rarely feel any difficulty here, since we usually deal with things that are clearly alive, such as a dog or a rattlesnake; or with things that are clearly nonalive, such as a brick or a typewriter.
Nevertheless, the task of defining "life" is both difficult and subtle; something that at once becomes evident if we stop to think.
Consider a caterpillar crawling over a rock. The caterpillar is alive, but the rock is not; as you guess at once, since the caterpillar is moving and the rock is not. Yet what if the caterpillar were crawling over the trunk of a tree?
The trunk isn't moving, yet it is as alive as the caterpillar.
Or what if a drop of water were trickling down the trunk of the tree? The water in motion would not be alive, but the motionless tree trunk would be.
It would be expecting much of anyone to guess that an oyster were alive if he came across one for the first time with a closed shell. Could a glance at a clump of trees in midwinter, when all are standing leafless, easily distinguish those which are alive and will bear leaves in the spring from those which are dead and will not?
Is it easy to tell a live seed from a dead seed, or either from a grain of sand? For that matter, is it always easy to tell whether a man is merely unconscious or quite dead? Modern medical advances are making it a matter of importance to decide the moment of actual death, and that is not always easy.
Nevertheless, what we call "life" is sufficiently important to warrant an attempt at a definition. We can begin by listing some of the things that living things can do, and nonliving things cannot do, and see if we end up with a satisfactory distinction for this particular twofold division of the Universe.
A living thing shows the capacity for independent motion against a force. A drop of water trickles downward, but only because gravity is pulling at it; it isn't moving "of its own accord. Living things that seem to be motionless overall, nevertheless move in part.
An oyster may lie attached to its rock all its adult life, but it can open and close its shell. Furthermore, it sucks water into its organs and strains out food, so that there are parts of itself that move constantly.
Plants, too, can move, turning their leaves to the sun, for instance; and there are continuous movements in the substance making it up. A living thing can sense and it can respond adaptively.
That is, it can become aware, somehow, of some alteration in its environment, and will then produce an alteration in itself that will allow it to continue to live as comfortably as possible.
To give a simple example, you may see a rock coming toward you and will quickly duck to avoid a collision of the rock with your head. Analogously, plants can sense the presence of light and water and can respond by extending roots toward the water and stems toward the light.
Even very primitive life forms, too small to see with the unaided eye, can sense the presence of food or of danger; and can respond in such a way as to increase their chances of meeting the first and of avoiding the second.
The response may not be a successful one; you may not duck quickly enough to avoid the rock—but it is the attempt that counts. A living thing metabolizes. By this we mean that it can eventually convert material from its environment into its own substance. The material may not be fit for use to begin with, so it must be broken apart, moistened, or otherwise treated.
It may have to be subjected to chemical change so that large and complex chemical units molecules are converted into smaller, simpler ones. Anything which is left over, or not usable, is then eliminated.
The different phases of this process are sometimes given separate names: A living thing grows. As a result of the metabolic process, it can convert more and more of its environment into itself, becoming larger as a result. A living thing reproduces.
It can, by a variety of methods, produce new living things like itself.
Any object which possesses all these abilities would seem to be clearly alive; and any object which possesses none of them is clearly nonalive.
Yet the situation is not at all clear-cut.The thunder-and-lightning example seems like a bad comparison for this kind of situation, in that the false claim is (1) easily observable to be untrue, and (2) utterly useless to the society that propagates it. How does temperature affect the rate of reaction for Lipase?
As the temperature increases, so will the rate of enzyme reaction. However, as the temperature exceeds the optimum the rate of reaction . THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROCESS In: "Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis", Edited by GS Singhal, G Renger, SK Sopory, K-D Irrgang and Govindjee, Narosa Publishers/New Delhi; and Kluwer Academic/Dordrecht, pp.
A glance backward reveals the fact that Brainerd has experienced some very severe setbacks, a condition quite natural in a railroad town.
I’ve been trying to delve deeper into predictive processing theories of the brain, and I keep coming across Karl Friston’s work on “free energy”.. At first I felt bad for not understanding this. Then I realized I wasn’t alone. There’s an entire not-understanding-Karl-Friston internet fandom, complete with its own parody Twitter account and Markov blanket memes. 1. Introduction. Zinc oxide, with its unique physical and chemical properties, such as high chemical stability, high electrochemical coupling coefficient, broad range of radiation absorption and high photostability, is a multifunctional material [1,2].In materials science, zinc oxide is classified as a semiconductor in group II-VI, whose covalence is on the boundary between ionic and covalent. Misc thoughts, memories, proto-essays, musings, etc. And on that dread day, the Ineffable One will summon the artificers and makers of graven images, and He will command them to give life to their creations, and failing, they and their creations will be dedicated to the flames.
The Jay Cooke failure of left the little city flat on its back. For the vast majority of science fiction worldbuilding, the major alteration to the laws of physics is allowing some species of faster-than-light propulsion for their starships.
Others will add things like psionics/psychic ph-vs.com besides those, the rest of the laws of physics operate exactly as in real life. – Concentration affects solids, gases and liquid so this will affect our experiment – When the concentration increases the rate of reaction increases as there are more molecules present, therefore there are more collisions between molecules (Collision theory) – Example: zinc reacts fairly slowly with dilute hydrochloric acid but when the acid is .